Arctic Tern

  Chris Hawkes

 Essay Writing
Citing Sources and the Bibliography

If you are using other sources, then you will need to use footnotes.

A footnote gives the source of a reference quoted in the text of your essay. For example, if your essay said "...and, as Blake argues, Chaucer's pilgrims are "characters that compose all Ages & Nations", then the quotation would be followed by a superscript number, which would refer to a number at the bottom of the page giving the source of the quotation - Blake, W. (1809) "Draft for Prospectus of the Engraving of Chaucer's Canterbury pilgrims".

Footnotes are numbered consecutively.

A scholarly bibliography of sources cited is an academic way to finish your essay. The last page of your essay will be your bibliography: a list of all texts used and cited in the production of the essay. The first, of course, will be the source text itself: for example, Macbeth, or The Wife of Bath's Prologue and Tale. Remember to include the EDITION you are working from - this usually means using the same format as the other references, discussed below - but for Shakespeare, just write the name of the text and the published edition, thus:
Macbeth, Arden Edition
The rest should be in alphabetical order of author's surname.

The reference should be made thus:

Wilson Knight, G. (1930) The Wheel of Fire, Oxford: OUP

That is, author's surname, initial, date of publication, title (in italics), city of publication, publisher - include all punctuation above! If you are handwriting your assignment, UNDERLINE the title.

If you are citing an essay, then the procedure is different. Say the essay is by John Corey, in a casebook edited by David Mayor. Then your reference would be

Corey, J. (1980) "Shakespeare's Folly" (in Mayor, David (ed) (1985) Twelfth Night Casebook, London: Pegasus

Note that titles of essays and poems go in inverted commas, whilst complete volumes (books!) are in italics.

Confused? Don't panic: ask me!

  The drudge

 The Essay Title

 Internet Search and Research

 Brainstorming

 The Linear Plan

 Footnotes and Bibliography

 Redrafting

 Return to CJH's main page

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